Modelling and simulation in drug development is not new. What is new is the vision for moving from a descriptive role (what happened) to a predictive and therefore decision making role. While seemingly attractive, important hurdles, both scientific and practical, must be overcome.
The applicability of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling (PBPK) far exceeds that of classical PK in predictive pharmacokinetics, tissue dosimetry, drug efficacy, and drug safety. This in silico technique, in conjunction with in vitro and in vivo studies, can greatly reduce drug failure rates, improve time to market and decrease overall R&D costs.
Emphysema is a progressive, debilitating disease that affects approximately 4.1 million people in the United States1 or roughly 1% of the US population2. The disease is characterised by destruction of lung tissue as a result of inflammation caused by exposure to noxious inhaled agents for extended periods.